Cultural critics also work in a manner similar to literary critics, but the texts are the mediated messages of television, newspapers, and film as well as the behavior of people as it has been shaped by the media. McGuire (1985) has predicted that the 1990s would bring renewed interest in attitudes and attitude systems in general and in the structure of attitudes in particular. "Effects of Mass Communication." They stayed at hotels and ate at restaurants, keeping records of how they were treated. There was widespread concern about the power of the developing forms of mass media, for some people believed that the mass media had extensive, direct, and powerful effects on attitude and behaviour change. This "build-up" of attitude intensity is a factor in polarization of attitudes with repeated exposure. Psychological Bulletin 51:390-417. He reduced the subject of communication research to four categories: (a) who, (b) said what, (c) to whom, and (d) with what effect. 798-884. Less concerned with immediate effects, they addressed the more subtle and long-term implications of the underlying structure and the implicit themes in the media. Abbildung 3: Deflecting source model (vgl. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Dependency theory also accounts for effects of the media, which can, in turn, affect society as well as the media. Later research indicated that a highly variable number of relays can exist between the media, the message receivers, and attitude formation (Rogers & Shoemaker, 1971). Der zwischen diesen Punkten liegende Bereich ist eine Grauzone mit unterschiedlichen Schattierungen und unterscheidet sich im Wesentlichen in der Totalität der beabsichtigten Täuschung. Marxism Today (January):18-23. x 229 AbeBooks may have this title (opens in new window). For example, most people, including those who smoke, have a positive attitude toward good health and longevity. Choukas, M. 1965. People may not have supportive attitudes but will behave according to consequences. Communication Yearbook 12, ed. Research concerning important intervening variables--for example, demographic background of the audience, selective perception, and other social and mental states of receivers--disputed the idea of direct influence. New York: Random House. (vgl. Third, there is an economical aspect in the way we maintain consistency of attitudes and behaviors that gives a propagandist the advantage. One of the most interesting aspects of the experimental evidence concerning the relationship between the media and behavior change is that subjects tend to be influenced by film and television characters that they perceive to be similar to themselves. They developed 16 "compliance-gaining" strategies with both positive and negative consequences, including reward, punishment, debts, altruism, and conformity. Concern About Propaganda. Reflecting the remarkable changes in the world of propaganda due to the increasing use of social media, this updated Seventh Edition provides a systematic introduction to the increasingly complex world of propaganda. 1990. It was found in laboratory settings that after exposure to aggressive pornography, some men showed less sensitivity toward rape victims, an increase in the willingness to say they would commit rape if not caught, an increase in the acceptance of certain myths about rape, and an increased aggressive behavior against women in a laboratory experiment. O'Donnell, V., and J. Kable. Ego-involvement is the degree of involvement of a person and how the person's life is affected by an issue. The war caused intense concern about the persuasive powers of the mass media and their potential for directly altering attitudes and behaviour. This is an example of a self-attribution theory that will be discussed later in this chapter. What is used as a stimulus to determine effects may not be representative of media content. Rubin, A.M., and S. Windahl. ---. The People's Choice: How the Voter makes up his Mind in a presidential Campaign. Focused on mass effects, this approach viewed human responses to the media as uniform and immediate. Marketing research also began to be developed in the 1920s. Such a person can be expected to rely on extra-message peripheral cues such as the attractiveness of the persuader or the persuader's credibility. He told them that their physical reactions to the pictures were being measured. The finding was a serendipitous one that had not been anticipated. When we attempt to make generalizations, we are confronted by the ever-changing nature of what is under study. Most of the research of the 1950s and 1960s was based on attempts of a persuader attempting to change attitudes in an audience, but William J. McGuire (1964) investigated factors that induced resistance to persuasion, producing a work that changed the focus of persuasion research. Zimbardo, O.G., and M. Leippe. Alcohol is the beverage most frequently consumed on television, twice as much as coffee or tea and 14 times as often as soft drinks. Through response analysis, the researchers were able to determine (a) the effect aspects of the propaganda to which the audience had responded, (b) the many-sided nature of responses, (c) whether the expected responses had occurred, and (d) unanticipated responses. L.S. Kelly. People are very affectionate and attentive. Comstock (1980) views television as a reinforcer of the status quo in society. ---. Berkowitz, McGuire, and others have found that viewer identification is the central concept in the interpretation of film and television effects. Money had to be collected; material comforts had to be sacrificed. Das „eigentliche“ Ziel muss – da es der Definition von Propaganda folgend nicht zum Vorteil des Empfängers ist – jedoch verschleiert werden um erreicht werden zu können. Affective effects are emotional responses to mediated information which can create strong feelings about parts of society and/or desensitize people to violence because of excessive exposure. Ein Anker stellt bereits etablierte Überzeugungen, Werte, Attitüden, Verhaltensmuster und Gruppennormen dar. 1988. This tension motivates a person to alter or adjust his/her behaviors. Eine Aussage ohne jedwede Informationsvermittlung ist hingegen ebenfalls kaum vorstellbar. Atrocity stories along with other more tasteful propaganda efforts were considered to be quite effective. Although many books date the modern study of propaganda and persuasion from the 1930s and 1940s, with the beginnings of the scientific study of persuasion, interest in the use of propaganda in World War I prompted earlier investigation. "Cultural Studies: Two Paradigms." Festinger said that once a person has made an important decision, he or she is in a committed state. Increased levels of arousal can lead to excitement that may be channelled into aggression; thus, television content that is exciting could also possibly induce aggressive behavior. New York: Columbia University Press. Boster, R.J., and P. Mongeau. These scholars were concerned with the values and ideological images reflected in media content. When World War II broke out in Europe, researchers turned their attention to studies of propaganda, counter-propaganda, attitudes, and persuasion. Results showed that the recruits liked the films, accepted the information in them as accurate, and did not perceive them as untruthful propaganda (Lowery & DeFleur, 1988). Journal of Communication 29(Summer):177-96. Eine Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme von Propaganda ist durch die scheinbare Verringerung der verfügbaren Handlungsoptionen denkbar: im Extremfall durch die Präsentation der gewünschten Option als generell ohne (sanktionslose) Alternative. Furthermore, they categorize media content subjectively, for example, by genre or by topic. New York: Academic Press, pp. In a complex society, where there is a proliferation of information, people rely on the media for information about that which they do not have immediate knowledge. 45 (2000). Thurstone, L.L. Zeige alle Beiträge von AdM1n1stR →. Any or all of these effects are likely to be felt only by people who depend upon media information. People may think an advertisement has a cute or loveable image, but they may not take the product seriously enough to purchase it. London: Hutchinson. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp. Zwei Möglichkeiten, die dazu dienen die Glaubwürdigkeit des Senders in den Augen der Empfänger zu erhöhen, das „Deflective source model“ und das „Legitimating source model“, sollen hier exemplarisch angeführt werden. Als ein Beispiel für schwarze Propaganda kann Radio freies Ungarn genannt werden. Zajonc, R.B. Lowery and DeFleur (1988) state that people learn from television, and it can no longer be regarded as mere entertainment. Public opinion research also began to develop. Fourth and most important, the actual performance of the modelled behavior requires motivation to do so. Strong emotions were felt, especially by those who had experienced sexual harassment in the past, and many women came forth to talk about their experiences. Positivism, the report emphasized that emotional arousal created by television stimuli that was not necessarily under conditions non-surveillance... 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